The Artifacts

Little remains of the ship's original cargo except for the approximately 240 amphoras that carried it, of which only twenty-nine are intact. The majority of these jars are from Halicarnassus and Rhodes, with some more northern examples from the regions around Clazomenae and Lesbos (map). Sieving of their contents yielded occasional grape seeds, olive pits, and nut shells, as well as fragments of their original tree bark stoppers. Some of the amphoras are lined with resin, which, in addition to the grape seeds, suggests a primary cargo of wine. A number of amphoras sport pre-firing stamps, including small "o" stamps on the top or base of the handles, and a rectangular device which may be a monogram or palmette. Such marks are believed to have been a means of testing the hardness of the clay before firing, or may have served to identify pottery workshop, content, capacity, producer, or dealer.

The wreck also produced a number of smaller ceramics, including an assemblage of plain wares––bowls, mortars, and pitchers––and Ionian cup sherds decorated with black slip. These are likely all of southern Ionian production and were found predominately in the upper regions of the site (J5–M9), an area designated as the ship's galley. Mark Lawall, an expert on Greek pottery at the University of Manitoba, is studying the Pabuç collection––in particular, the transport amphoras––in an attempt to resolve and refine the disputed typologies of these shapes. The ceramics so far have provided the best means for dating the shipwreck. In particular, the fragmentary amphoras from Lesbos and Clazomenae, as well as the southern Aegean types and Ionian cups, indicate that the ship sank in the second quarter of the sixth century BC.

Archaeologists also recovered a large, stone anchor stock from near the center of the site (M10). It has a wide notch carved at its mid-point, measures 1.65 m (5.4 ft) long, and weighs 115 kg (253.5 lb) (image/dwg). A similarly shaped stone weight, or stock, was found farther downslope (L15) (image/dwg). This one, however, was much smaller at 0.45 m (1.5 ft) and 7.3 kg (16.1 lb). A heavy concentration of grape seeds in this lower region suggests that the ship also carried a bulk cargo of grapes or raisins, perhaps packed in sacks or baskets, which did not survive underwater.

Click here to see more pictures of the ceramic artifacts

Click here to see more pictures of the anchor stock and weight

Amphoras from Pabuç Burnu.
(Photo by D. Frey)

An amphoras with an "o" stamp at the base of one of its handles.
(Photo by D. Frey)

Three large ceramic bowls or mortars.
(Photo by D. Frey)

Stone stock from the ship's anchor, lying on the sea bed.
(Photo by D. Frey)