Meg Chriand – Institute of Nautical Archaeology Institute of Nautical Archaeology Thu, 07 Dec 2017 19:17:30 +0000 en-US hourly 1 B-24 ‘Tulsamerican’ Survey, Croatia Tue, 07 Feb 2017 00:13:07 +0000 This project is a survey of Tulsamerican, a B-24 which crashed in a dog-fight on December 17, 1944, and is specifically planned to obtain an accurate and vibrant 3D map of her wreckage. Secondary goals are to take corrosion potential readings from the Tulsamerican site and other B-24s in the area to interpret the decay of WWII aircraft sites in various depths. The images will be used to benefit the Tulsa Air and Space Museum & Planetarium and also for the PhD dissertation of the project’s leader. The desired outcome will be to help integrate Tulsamerican’s memory into the community of Tulsa and provide the museum with opportunities to honor her history. Learn more on the project page here and get recent updates through the B-24 ‘Tulsamerican’ Survey, Croatia blog.

AINA Quarterly 15.4 Winter Tue, 07 Feb 2017 00:11:10 +0000 INA’s 2017 Fieldwork & Research Projects Mon, 06 Feb 2017 19:42:26 +0000 In 2017, the Institute of Nautical Archaeology will support more than 20 new and continuing archaeological projects around the globe. Much of this research is driven by the graduate students (both current and former) and faculty members of Texas A&M University’s Nautical Archaeology Program, as well as INA Research Associates. Among the projects which received INA funding or support for 2017 are:

Shipwreck Excavation at Highbourne Cay (Bahamas)
Nicholas Budsberg (Texas A&M University)
The 2017 Claude Duthuit Archaeology grant was awarded for the excavation of what may be the earliest known European ship in the Americas, dated to the beginning of the Age of Exploration (1492-1520). In 1986 INA partially excavated the wreck, which is likely either an Iberian caravel or nao, but modern methods will ensure an improved study of the hull. Read more about the history of INA work at this site: Highbourne Cay Iberian Shipwreck.

Underwater Survey in Fourni (Greece)
Peter Campbell and George Koutsouflakis
This survey made headlines in 2016 when archaeologists discovered 45 shipwrecks after just 33 days of diving. The Fourni Channel is the safest of three north-south sailing routes in the eastern Aegean Sea, resulting in a large volume of traffic passing the archipelago. This year, they will undertake 3D mapping of each site, artifact collection, and multibeam remote sensing. INA is delighted to lend support to this important project! Learn more here: Fourni Underwater Survey.


Burgaz Harbors Research Project (Turkey)
Numan Tuna (Middle East Technical University), Elizabeth S. Greene (Brock University), and Justin Leidwanger (Stanford University) 

Pending permission from the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism, this collaborative initiative with Brock University, Stanford University, and Middle East Technical University will explore the four harbors associated with the Archaic through late antique maritime site of Burgaz on the Datça Peninsula, Turkey. Begun in 2011, the co-directors of this project are conducting an ongoing comprehensive survey and excavation of the four harbors and associated onshore port facilities. Learn more here: Burgaz Harbors Research Project.

Underwater Archaeology of the Roman Site Kaukana (Sicily)
Massimo Capulli (University of Udine)
In the stretch of Italian coast between Punta Braccetto and the seaside village of Casuzze exist several landings and coastal shelters which delineate the Greco-Roman site of Kaukana, which is connected to trade routes between the East, Tripoli, Egypt, Rome, Malta, and Sicily. This sheltered harbor persisted through the Byzantine, Arab, and Norman eras. The aim of the Kaukana Project, born from a partnership between the Department of Humanities and Cultural Heritage of the University of Udine and the Sea Superintendence of Sicily, is to survey the site for underwater cultural heritage and reconstruct Kaukana’s relationship with the rest of the Mediterranean.

Marzamemi Maritime Heritage Project (Sicily)
Justin Leidwanger (Stanford University)

This collaborative excavation, survey, and heritage management initiative focuses on the maritime landscape and seaborne communication off the southeast coast of Sicily (Italy). The concentration of accessible sites here and their location at the intersection of the eastern and western Mediterranean facilitates inquiry into long-term structures of regional and interregional maritime exchange from the early Roman era (3rd/2nd c. BC) through Late Antiquity (6th/7th c. AD). Learn more here: Marzamemi Maritime Heritage Project.

Sutiles Project – an Examination of Roman-era Laced Boats (Italy)
Staci Willis (INA)
The Sutiles Project, a collaboration between the Department of Humanities and Cultural Heritage of the University of Udine and the Superintendency of Archaeology, Fine Arts, and Landscape of Veneto, aims to study the Roman-era laced hull remains of northeastern Italy through the continued examination of the hull remains of laced boats found along the northwestern Adriatic coast (in northeastern Italy) and the associated excavation records of these remains. So far, this research has uncovered a consistent pattern of identifiable construction features and materials usage that distinguish these vessels as a separate tradition of laced boatbuilding in this region during the Roman imperial period.

Archival Research of Venetian Shipwrecks in the Levant (Venice)
Renard Gluzman (Tel-Aviv University)
The principal objective of this project is to make possible the detection and identification of shipwrecks, by matching archaeological finds with evidence found in Venice’s historical records, and to provide new evidence of shipwrecks unknown to underwater archaeologists. As most databases of ancient shipwrecks are primarily based on archaeological finds, this project aims to supplement existing knowledge with written evidence as a tool for archaeologists to incorporate historical data. Since 2015, 535 indications of shipwrecks concerning Cyprus and the Levantine coast have been documented and incorporated into an online database.

Sudjuradj Shipwreck Excavation (Croatia)
José Luis Casabán (Texas A&M University)
This projects aims to complete the excavation, digital recording, and analysis of the hull remains of the San Girolamo, a 16th-century Ragusan shipwreck which sank in 1576 at the entrance of Sudjuradj Bay on the Island of Sipan (Croatia). A preliminary survey and two partial excavations have been carried out since 2014 to document the hull remains of the 25 meter-long ship, which lies at a depth of 27-30 meters. The San Girolamo represents an unique example of the naval technology of the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) during the Renaissance period. The study of its hull remains will provide a better understanding of Ragusan seafaring during the 16th century, which encompassed the Ottoman and Spanish empires on both sides of the Mediterranean.

Turtles and Maritime Networks of Trade Project (Grand Cayman)
Megan Hagseth (Texas A&M University)
This study seeks to understand the cultural implications of sea turtle consumption during the 17th and 18th centuries, examining faunal assemblages from shipwreck sites, turtle fishing camps, port communities, and others and comparing this data to the historical record.  In particular, the butchery and distribution patterns have the potential to differentiate elite turtle feasting from common consumption. A secondary goal of the project is to better understand the political and cultural events which directly contributed to the over-hunting of sea turtles and the depletion of the population.

Yukon River Steamboat Survey (Canada)
John Pollack (INA)
When the Gold Rush exploded in 1897 A.D., West Coast shipyards responded to the demand, and stern-wheelers were constructed in yards as far south as San Francisco and as far north as Dutch Harbour in the Aleutian Islands. In total, 266 stern- and side-wheeled steamboats operated on the Yukon River in Alaska and Canada. When the boom dissipated in 1900 A.D., many steamship companies either went bankrupt or were bought out by competitors, and vessels were left derelict on shore. As a result, the Yukon now contains one of the greatest intact collections of stern-wheel vessels known to exist. The Yukon River Project, initiated in 2005, aims to document the range of construction techniques used on these late 19th-century vessels. Learn more here: Yukon River Steamboat Survey.

Sea Biscuit & Salted Beef Research Project (Bermuda)
Grace Tsai (Texas A&M University)
Previous attempts to gauge the nutritional value of shipboard diets were based on historical documentation instead of laboratory data. In this project, shipboard food will be replicated using the exact ingredients and methods of preparation from the 17th century. Archaeological and historical data will be used to replicate the salted pork and beef, ship biscuit, wine and beer, and other provisions aboard Warwick, an English race-built galleon that sank in 1619. Then, a trans-Atlantic voyage will be simulated by storing the food in casks and keeping these in a ship’s hull for three months. Learn more here: Sea Biscuit & Salted Beef Research Project.

Ongoing Projects at INA’s Bodrum Research Center
In addition to the above projects, an impressive array of ongoing post-excavation research projects is based out of INA’s Bodrum Research Center in Turkey. Decades of INA surveys in Turkey have uncovered wrecks and cargoes dating from the Bronze Age to the Ottoman Empire. The most significant of these discoveries have rewritten the history books, adding a staggering volume of data to the archaeological record of ancient and medieval seafaring. Students and scholars from around the world work out of the Bodrum Research Center to survey and study the region’s shipwrecks. Annually, over a quarter of a million paying visitors tour the Museum of Underwater Archaeology where they learn about the important discoveries INA has made with its Turkish partners.

Ships of the Theodosian Harbor at Yenikapı (Turkey)

Kızılburun Late Hellenistic Column Wreck (Turkey)

Uluburun Late Bronze Age Shipwreck (Turkey)

Tektaş Burnu Classical Greek Shipwreck (Turkey)

Yassıada Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation (Turkey)

Ertuğrul Ottoman Frigate Excavation (Japan)

Call for 2016 Reports & 2017 Proposals Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:25:44 +0000 INA is now accepting proposals for projects occurring in 2017. Visit the Project Proposal Page to download the INA Project Proposal form for 2017 projects. The Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA) is a non-profit organization formed for the purpose of promoting scholarly, ethical research on shipwrecks and maritime sites around the world. INA seeks to assist archaeologists and researchers by providing institutional backing for fundraising activities, loaning equipment, or providing a modest amount of ‘seed money’ to projects.  With the exception of the Claude Duthuit Archaeology Grant, most awards do not exceed $5,000.

Directors of INA-supported projects may be eligible for equipment loan from INA.  Please visit the INA Equipment page to view a list of available items.

INA Projects Included In NEH 50th Anniversary Celebration Mon, 29 Feb 2016 22:30:37 +0000 nehimage1For its 50th anniversary, NEH presents projects that have enriched and shaped American lives.  Several projects such as the Uluburun shipwreck excavation were mentioned as projects that shaped the discipline of underwater archaeology.  INA’s philosophy of excavating a shipwreck to completion is increasingly unusual—in many cases made possible because of NEH support. To read the full article, visit:


INA’s Motion Picture Film Collection Mon, 29 Feb 2016 22:02:50 +0000 filmcoresslide

INAA holds a significant film collection, both moving image and still.  According to the most recent inventory, there are 479 cores of moving picture film and over 40,000 slides.  The moving image film collection is comprised of mainly 18 mm polyester film, lengths of which range from 50 to 400 feet.  These films document some of the earliest scientific achievements in underwater archaeology.

Current Projects


Meg Hagseth Installing the Shelves of the New Film Refrigeration Units.  Polyester Motion Picture Film should be stored in a cool environment with a low relative humidity.

This fall, the INA Archives received two brand new top-quality commercial refrigerators to store hundreds of reels of decades-old archival film. The two units were provided to INA by the College of Liberal Arts at Texas A&M University, and will soon house INA’s collection of over 400 cores of polyester motion picture film. This important footage documents INA shipwreck excavations including those at Uluburun and Yassıada, Turkey. Thanks to College Dean Pamela Matthews for helping INA preserve this priceless, irreplaceable footage documenting some of the earliest scientific achievements in underwater archaeology. The process of cleaning, cataloging, and moving the film to cold storage has already begun, updates of our progress will be posted here


Intern Jess Conklin cleans the film Ancient Mariners.

Intern Jess Conklin cleans the film with a non-wax cleaner and cotton pads to remove any dust.  Using a digital microscope, she checks the film for sprocket hole damage, splice condition, and warping or delamination of the film.  The Archives workroom has been outfitted with a pair of rewinds and a lightbox to make handling the film easier.  Each film will be cleaned, cataloged and then packaged for cold storage.




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J.R. Steffy Collection Mon, 29 Feb 2016 21:51:26 +0000 In the 1950’s, J.R. Steffy changed the way nautical archaeologists would study ancient ships.  J.R. “Dick” Steffy was a self-taught scholar who turned his hobby of shipbuilding into a lifelong career. The first ship model he built was an ancient Egyptian ship from 1300 BC. It took Steffy 12 years to create this first model. From Steffy’s hobby came the introduction of model ship reconstruction into nautical archaeology. The model is now housed in the INA headquarters along with many of the items used or created by Steffy including: slides, tools, the Egyptian ship model, and original drawings.

Collection Showcase

steffythumbnailJ.R. Steffy’s Toolkit: J.R. Steffy kept his model-making tools in this wooden Bolla wine box.  Tools included this wooden chisel set, model planers, brass shim, and a specially made model hammer.





Current Projects

The Egyptian ship model was removed from exhibit on February 27, 2016 to undergo some much needed cleaning.  Years of dust had accumulated on and between the tiny planks.  The model was meticulously cleaned by INAA intern, Jessica Conklin using cotton swabs and dilute isopropyl alcohol.  Some minor repairs to the rigging were also made.  Cleaning was completed that day and the model was replaced on exhibit.


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From the INA Vault Mon, 29 Feb 2016 21:28:16 +0000 This week’s photos from the vault come from the Yassıada Byzantine wreck, reported to journalist Peter Throckmorton in 1958 by a sponge diver from Bodrum.  It was excavated between the years 1961-1964, requiring 3,533 dives. The wreck lay about 32-39 m deep off Yassıada, a small coastal island that caused many ships to wreck in antiquity, and contained a wealth of information about the 7th century A.D. The mapping system, carefully employed by the excavators, provided details about its construction and allowed for a full reconstruction of the ship.

annbass1 gfb6162 susanwomer


Top Left: Ann Bass holding resin used to make replicas of the anchors from this wreck.  Although the anchors had long since decayed the concretions that formed around them left a hollow mold which could then be filled with resin to reveal the original once the concretion was broken away.

Top Right: George F. Bass inspecting a small artifact while diving on the site.

Bottom Left: Susan Womer (now Katzev) holding an amphora.  Due to resting on the sea bottom, chlorides had permeated the ceramics, these were then removed by placing the amphoras in a fresh water bath until the chloride had been removed.

Bottom Right: The team loads up onto the Virazon to begin the field season.

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Welcome to the INA Archives! Sat, 27 Feb 2016 20:43:53 +0000


The Institute of Nautical Archaeology Archives (INAA) contains a wide range of materials that deal with an expansive range of content from underwater archaeology projects all around the world.  Items in the collection include original manuscripts dating to 1740 all the way up to digital files from current excavations.  In addition to documents, the INAA holds a variety of other materials including silicone molds of artifacts, motion picture film, memorabilia of significant INA figures and more.  The diversity of material types in the INAA collection makes it unique and INA works diligently to ensure its long term preservation and storage.  If you have questions about materials in the INAA collection, please contact INA’s archivist, Meg Hagseth at

Check back here for regular updates on INAA projects!

J.R. Steffy Collection

From the INA Vault

INA’s Motion Picture Film Collection


INA Welcomes New Research Associates Wed, 03 Feb 2016 22:27:22 +0000
INA is pleased to announce the addition of two new faces, Mr. David Ruff and Mrs. Kimberly Rash Kenyon, to our list of Research Associates.

Mr. David Ruff

Dave Ruff is a Ph.D. student in the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M, co-director of the Bay of Kastela Roman Shipwreck Excavation in Croatia, and 2015 recipient of the Claude Duthuit Archaeology Grant.



Mrs. Kimberly Rash Kenyon

Kim Kenyon spent three seasons as a team member of the Kızılburun Column Wreck Excavation and graduated with an M.A. from the Nautical Archaeology Program in 2012.  In 2013 she was hired as a conservator for the Queen Anne’s Revenge Project in Greenville, N.C. and late last year Kim was appointed field director of the QAR project.  INA welcomes these accomplished scholars to the ranks of Research Associate!