Institute of Nautical Archaeology Institute of Nautical Archaeology Sun, 18 Feb 2018 21:37:49 +0000 en-US hourly 1 New Bacteria Species in Salted Beef Mon, 29 Jan 2018 06:02:04 +0000 By Grace Tsai

Winter break was both exciting and stressful. Exciting because we received some unexpected results from the microbial laboratory work, but stressful because we were rushing to have the results ready in time to present them at the Society for Historical Archaeology conference in New Orleans.

Grace Tsai, SBSB’s principal investigator, presenting at the Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA) Annual Conference. Photo by Rogelio Casas


Erika Davila presenting on the microbiological work from the Ship Biscuit & Salted Beef Research Project. Photo by Rogelio Casas

Although we had isolated several pure culture strains, we only had time to do DNA extractions and send off 10 samples from the salted beef for sequencing, as one of our presentations focused primarily on the microbes from salted beef itself. We received the sequencing results only 2 days before we were scheduled to present! Three of the samples were fungal, so the lab was unable to process them in the short amount of time we had.

Dr. Elizabeth Latham identified the 7 bacterial samples by comparing the DNA results from the laboratory with a master database. Our samples revealed that every single sample was a different genus.

The 7 bacterial samples with their genus and species isolated from salted beef.

In fact, 3 of the 7 bacterial samples were entirely new species. This is not what we had hypothesized, because we were expecting the extremely salty brine to prevent most taxa from growing, and for any microbes to be halophiles (bacteria that love salt). It’s too early to say the exact function, if any, of these microbes on meat preservation or decay, or even their predicted effect on the health of those who consumed it. However, it is interesting to note that it took the beef approximately 30 minutes of heavy boiling before it was deemed sterile, so it is possible that the sailors’ food was not teeming with bacteria when consumed if they boiled it for long periods. We have yet to find any historical documents noting how long meat was boiled on ships–we assume more than 30 minutes given the amount of time it takes to get a cauldron boiling, but without any historical or archaeological evidence this is only conjecture. Moreover, even if the sailors were able to kill all the microbes in their meat, this does not guarantee safety because bacteria can produce toxins that are not always destroyed with heat.

Many have questioned the reason we believe we will find beneficial microorganisms (probiotics) in the food especially given that the sailor diet is almost always unhealthy and unsanitary in historical texts. Our hypothesis is that although the modernization of food brought food security, maintenance of hygiene and sanitization, and standardization of food reproducibility, it also reduced the types and amounts of microbes humans ate in the past as a whole.  Recent studies note that communities practicing pre-industrial foodways have a lower frequency of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases and many other chronic non-infectious diseases, and that the decrease in such diseases was also correlated to an increase in gut microbiome diversity (O’dea, 1984; Martínez et al., 2015). Modernization eliminated a lot of good and bad bacteria. Now that we have recreated historical shipboard foods using the near exact ingredients and methodology as in the past, we hope we may find these microorganisms that were eaten in the past, both the good and the bad.

This semester started off with such exciting results and we look forward to what the rest of this year will bring!

Note: For those who do not know what probiotics are, or how they work, here is a useful website that explains simply what probiotics are and what they do.

Recent Progress for the Ship Biscuit & Salted Beef Research Thu, 07 Dec 2017 05:24:57 +0000 As the semester draws to an end, many are perhaps wondering about our research status. Research assistant, Emelie Nelson, shares our newest results and progress in this post.

What were 17th-Century Sailors actually eating? How did their diet affect their health?

by Emelie Nelson

These two important questions serve as the basis for “Ship Biscuit and Salted Beef Research Project.”  To answer these questions, a two-month sea voyage simulation was conducted. All food and beverage items were handmade, following 17th-century recipes.

Beginning in August 2017, barrels of wine, water, salted beef, salted cod, and biscuits were loaded into the iron hull of Elissa in Galveston, Texas. These barrels remained on the ship for approximately two months (even through the tumultuous Hurricane Harvey). Contrary to what one may initially expect, Hurricane Harvey ironically contributed to the accuracy of the simulation because the simulation was modeled after Warwick, a ship that sunk in a hurricane off the coast of Bermuda.

Every few days, members of the team retrieved samples from the barrels to test for bacterial growth and to perform nutritional analysis.

The Loading of the Barrels. Emelie Nelson.

Why is this relevant, you might ask?

It has been hypothesized that exposure to pathogens, such as in the case of 17th century sailors, may strengthen the human immune system. This idea is known as the Hygiene Hypothesis. If  “Ship Biscuit and Salted Beef Research Project” can identify the types of pathogens that 17th century sailors most likely encountered in their diet, the results of the investigation can be used to better understand the Hygiene Hypothesis.

Furthermore, present-day safety measures that help to ensure the safety of our food not only kill the bad bacteria (ie. pathogens) that make us sick but also the good bacteria (ie. probiotics) that keep our guts healthy.  Therefore, if  “Ship Biscuit and Salted Beef Research Project” can also identify the good bacteria present in the diet of 17th Century Sailors (prior to modern food and safety regulations) we can potentially put them back into our diet! Pretty cool, huh?

What does this mean for our project going forward?

In the upcoming months, our project will attempt to isolate the probiotics that are present in our samples and perform genomic sequencing.  We will be using techniques such as PCR, gel electrophoresis, and 16S rRNA sequencing. To read more about probiotics and their importance, visit:

Brewing Up Knowledge with Brigadoon Sun, 19 Nov 2017 00:13:28 +0000 By Emily Bandy

This past weekend the team took a trip out to the Renaissance Festival (known to the public as Ren Fest) in Todd Mission, TX to learn about 17th century beer brewing. It was my first time at Ren Fest, and my first time seeing brewing in process. I didn’t have any expectations coming on this trip, but when I saw festival attendees in crazy costumes I could only assume this was going to be quite a unique experience.  

Our team arrived bright and early to Brigadoon Brewery where the brewmaster, Alan Ward, explained the basics of the brewing process. The recipe, derived from Sir William Harrison’s Description of Elizabethan England, was only a few steps but took the entire day to brew!

Team member, John McQuitty, pouring milled grains into mash tun.

In addition to the length of the brewing process, we were unaware of the amount of science behind it. The temperature, sugar levels, how the grains were milled, and many more aspects had to be carefully controlled and monitored to ensure the brewing went smoothly. Sarah Bankhead noted, “After spending much time reading historical accounts and methods for brewing, it was very neat to get to see and experience the process come to life.” Nicki Fischer added, “It is one thing to read about the recipe and the methods used to brew the beer, and it’s another to sit first row and lend a helping hand.”As scientists, I think it’s safe to say brewing is not only a craft but an intense scientific procedure as well.

Alan (left) and James (right) pouring water into our first mash.

In the midst of the brewing, our team also promoted our historical beer tasting event by asking bystanders to enter their contact information on a slip (to be notified of the event) for the chance to win tickets to our Elissa shipboard tasting on March 23, 2018. We jokingly called this “heckling,” and dressed up in bacon and egg costumes, our team members took turns as pairs advertising for the event. Our microbiologist, Dr. Elizabeth Latham, a master heckler, taught us how to draw people into  conservation and keep them interested. I can speak for the team in saying that we all got out of our shell during heckling!

Helen (left) and Christian (right) heckling people outside Brigadoon Brewery to sign up for notification of our shipboard beer tasting.

What did the beer taste like? I can’t say as 1) about half of us, including myself, are underage and were given a wristband that indicated we could not try any alcohol, and 2) our beer is not ready yet as it has to go through fermentation for the next 2 weeks. We will be picking the beer up on Thanksgiving weekend!

The trip was a great experience in learning the science of brewing beer and how important it was to 17th-century sailors.  A big thank you to Alan and his team who were extremely helpful with keeping the recipe as historically accurate as possible. We couldn’t have completed the brewing project without the generous help of Brigadoon Brewery & Brew School. 

A little about Brigadoon Brewery & Brew School…


Brigadoon Brewery & Brew School LLC


To educate as many minds and palates as possible about the important role of beer in the development of civilization and the qualities and attributes of craft beer. In short:

“We believe that life is too short to drink bad beer.”

2017 will be our 10th season at the Texas Renaissance Festival


Brigadoon Brewery & Brew School is a unique brewpub and teaching facility located on the grounds of the Texas Renaissance Festival in Todd Mission (Plantersville), Texas. Brigadoon Brewery and Brew School was born from a desire to bring our love of brewing beer and our love of the Texas Renaissance Festival together. We opened in the fall of 2008 as a unique living history demonstration booth brewing with historical equipment and techniques.  In 2011 we expanded production to include a modern stainless system off stage. Both the historical and modern brewed beer are sold back to the public. To our knowledge we are the only renaissance style brewery or brewpub operating on the grounds of a Renaissance Festival using period specific recipes, equipment, and methods as well as modern equipment to brew hand crafted ale and serve it to the public.

What does that actually mean? Well, nine weekends a year (a total of 19 days) we don our garb and brew beer using equipment, ingredients, techniques, and recipes that would have been available during the 1400s through the 1600s. We then give samples of ale away and sell pints to visitors that pass through our booth allowing them the opportunity to taste a piece of living history.

Brigadoon Brewery Currently brews over 12 different beers.  Brigadoon’s Scottish and English Ales are both reverse engineered from tax records to match a period in history (1490-1550) and are brewed on period equipment using period techniques and then sold back to the public making each sip a taste of history.

To learn more visit:

Poster Season Came Early This Year Fri, 27 Oct 2017 14:58:25 +0000 By Melissa Dossett

Our team was super excited to get right back to work on our cod and beef research this year! We met (some for the first time) with bright and shiny faces, ready for anything that might come our way. Including…having two posters ready in under a month! While team members such as myself and a few others were not too worried about this, it was a different story for the rest of the team. Most of them are freshmen or sophomores who have never participated in a formal research conference before, and/or it was their first semester with the team. Thus, a senior team member and I were put in charge of the Cod team, and another experienced member was put in charge of the Beef team. Due to the fast approaching deadline, it felt a little like: “Ok, we need two posters: Cod team, Beef team, GO”. Luckily though, our team has amazing mentors that supported us through this experience. Nonetheless, we were ready and willing to take on the challenge. Our team really rallied and got so much done in so little time. I only participated in my first conference last semester, so I was worried about coordinating a team so soon, but luckily, I had a great team to work with. I also think that by being thrown into this so fast, our team learned how to work well together in a short amount of time.

We ended up getting both posters done in the nick of time, and they were awesome! Then, came my personal favorite part–presenting. I get really excited to share with people things that I have worked hard on and I could tell my team members were excited too. I presented the Cod poster with Daniela Trevino, Emily Bandy, and Somer Smith. This group of girls in particular really complimented each other well, as each knew certain aspects about the research that maybe another wasn’t as clear on. When asked about her first conference experience at A&M, and with the team, Emily said, “I had a great experience presenting our data on salted cod. Seeing the research with everyone’s poster there made me really excited for all the things we can do with our research!” Additionally, Somer stated that, “Having the opportunity to present a research poster with my peers was amazing! I was able to tell others about our project and learn about all of the other projects being conducted at A&M.” Echoing what Somer mentioned about learning about the other projects, this is something I really enjoyed as well! We were placed next to a group who’s poster we were really interested in, and vice versa.

I think experiences like these are what really brings our team together and reminds us why we were passionate about joining the team. It also shows that together, we are able to accomplish tasks that may seem daunting!

Somer Smith (left) and Emily Bandy (right) representing Team Cod!

From Left to Right: Sarah Bankhead, Erika Davila, Emelie Nelson, and John McQuitty in front of their fantastic salted beef poster.

Left to Right: Daniela Trevino, Somer Smith, and Melissa Dossett, in front of their awesome cod poster!

Crowdfunding Nautical Archaeology Wed, 04 Oct 2017 13:15:41 +0000 The Ship Biscuit & Salted Beef Project is currently crowdsourcing research funds to continue the nutritional and microbiological testing of their shipboard food items. Over the summer, the majority of food items were made according to 17th-century historical documents and data from archaeological remains and placed on Elissa, the 1877 tallship docked in Galveston. Upon initial testing, a surprising number of microbes, both in diversity and quantity, were present on the food, despite the great amount of salt and other bio-preservatives used in their making, causing the team to exhaust their laboratory supplies much sooner than expected. Microbiological analysis is time-dependent, so having the proper amount of supplies shipped in and ready is critical to have sound data. If you’re interested in donating, please check the crowdfunding website here.

About This Project
Were sailors actually ship-shape–or were they truly a sickly bunch? Find out with us! We are replicating shipboard food using exact ingredients and methods from the 17th century. Then, a transatlantic voyage is simulated by storing the food in casks and keeping them on Elissa, the 19th century tallship. The nutritional and microbiological data from this project will offer a glimpse into the unique food situation, health, and daily life of past sailors.

What is the context of this research?
“[Unsalted food] is rotten and stinking [so] it is necessary to lose your senses of taste and smell and sight just to [consume] it and not sense it,” wrote Eugenio de Salazar, a Spanish explorer to the New World, in 1573. Before canning technologies or refrigeration were invented, food was fermented, salted, or dried to prevent spoilage. Unfortunately, these methods of preservation also decrease the nutritional value of food on lengthy voyages. Previous attempts to gauge the nutritional value of shipboard diets were based on historical documentation or existing USDA nutrition charts that only reflect nutritional values from modern foods, not historical ones.

What is the significance of this project?
This project hopes to understand the effects of shipboard diet on the health of sailors by determining the nutritional and microbial intake of seamen on 17th-century English ships by replicating the food items as close to possible as they were in the past.

This project will give us great insight into humankind’s shared maritime history and answer some longstanding questions in archaeology and history. We hope to understand how this unique subset of society ate and how this impacted their health, as prior to airplanes, all immigrants who made the transatlantic voyage to the United States came here via ship. Yet, there is little knowledge on the precise conditions of the food 17th-century sailors consumed.

What are the goals of the project?
In this project, shipboard food will be replicated using the exact ingredients and methods of preparation from the 17th century, including non-GMO ingredients, the exact species of plant or animal, and the same butchery methods and cuts of meat. Archaeological and historical data will be used to replicate the salted pork and beef, ship biscuit, wine and beer, and other provisions aboard Warwick, an English race-built galleon that sank in 1619. We will also simulate a trans-Atlantic voyage by storing the food in casks and keeping these in a ship’s hull for three months. Representative samples of food will be sent for nutritional and microbial analysis, including species of microbes, their quantities, and toxins, to understand changes that the food undergoes.…



First Look at a Rare Northern Steamboat Wed, 27 Sep 2017 22:03:51 +0000
Heritage steamboat Nenana at Pioneer Park, Fairbanks, Alaska  (J. Pollack 2017)


Research Associate John Pollack has just returned from Alaska where with the assistance of City of Fairbanks staff a hull assessment was conducted of the heritage ship Nenana. The 210’ Nenana was one of the last and largest American-built stern-wheel steamboats to work on the lower Yukon and Tanana Rivers, where it served as a packet carrying up to 52 passengers and towing 6 barges at a time. The standard two-week route was a 1600 mile round trip to Marshall, with the occasional trip above the Arctic Circle to Fort Yukon. Nenana is the only known example of a northern wooden-hulled  sternwheeler designed by naval architect W.C. Wickum in 1932 and built from blueprints. The goal was to create a powerful, minimum draft tow boat suitable for the shallow, lower sections of the Yukon River drainage. The ship has a barge-like hull with standard chine construction, a rectangular cross-section amidships and a broad bow. The blocky hull is visibly less sophisticated than the streamlined Klondike 2 which carried freight cargo on the main deck, and towed only a single barge through the more constricted and meandering sections of the upper Yukon drainage. Another significant difference from Klondike 2, was the use of very few water-tight bulkheads on Nenana.


A snag deflector arc in front of one of the four main rudders (J. Pollack 2017)


Several rare examples of hull architecture and machinery were documented, including novel snag deflector arcs designed to keep debris away from the four main rudders, an uncommon slaved tiller assembly placed just inches above the main deck, and the largest number of large transverse beams yet found in a Yukon River steamer. Nenana also contained the second known example of an internal hog post and chain system installed below the main deck, and used to correct hull weakness (e.g. hogging) in the original design. Additionally, the team discovered a truly unique and baffling framing method at the stern rake (or apron), where an upper set of floors (complete with limber holes) was installed above the centerline and side keelsons, which in turn rests upon the lower floors to which the hull planking is spiked. These elevated floors are not shown in the blueprints, suggesting they were an “on-the-fly” alternation made by the shipwrights when the prefabricated hull was assembled in Nenana, Alaska.


Largest shipwreck at the Golden site


In late September, three additional small stern-wheel steamboat sites were confirmed on the Upper Columbia River between Fairmont and Golden BC, by Danish-Canadian archaeologist Xenius Nielsen and Research Associate John Pollack. The Fairmont site lies a kilometer north of the source of the Columbia River at a point where the river is less than 15 m wide. The Golden sites are 100 km further north (downriver), and plans are being made to document the largest of the three during low water in the spring of 2018. Note the fresh grizzly bear tracks in the mud.


Fairmont site


Grizzly bear footprints adjacent to paddlewheel fitting at a second site in Golden, BC


New Undergraduate Members and Summer Progress Update Sun, 17 Sep 2017 23:43:39 +0000 We are incredibly excited to begin a new semester of the Ship Biscuit & Salted Beef Project. If you have not been following us on Facebook, please check our webpage:  to stay up-to-date with our progress. Over the Summer, we have successfully loaded our food items on Elissa and are now analyzing the nutritional and microbial contents of the food items! Further, we are so proud to announce that our team microbiologist, Elizabeth Latham, graduated over the Summer with her PhD in Animal Science!

We have also started a fundraising page as the cost of the media we are growing our microbes on for study has exceeded our initial costs (

Lastly, I would like to announce the new members to our team who we are so glad to have with us!

Johanna Fischer

Degree: Bioenvironmental Science (B.S.) from Texas A&M University, WIP

Myers-Brigg Personality Type: INTJ

Interests: traveling the world, hiking, animals, binging TV shows on Netflix, discovering new bands and music in general, FaceTiming my boyfriend across the world

Favorite bookBlue Covenant by Maude Barlow

One Amazing Thing I’ve Seen or Done: Saw of view of the Rhine River from the Reichenstein Castle in Germany.

I was born in Quito, the capital city of Ecuador, to an American mother and a German father. At 5 years old, I moved to the beautiful city of Corpus Christi, Texas, where I called home for most of the year and spent my summers back in Ecuador. In high school, I was very active in any club that seemed interesting and would look good on a college application, especially the clubs with “honor society” in their title. These included the National Honor Society, Spanish Honor Society, and the National Technical Honor Society. After high school I moved to College Station, Texas to attend Texas A&M University and to pursue a degree in Bioenvironmental Science. I originally had plans to work for the EPA, but seeing as how the government has steered away from an environmental focus, I’m open to wherever my education may be applied. I’m also looking to further my education in Germany. I’m in my last semester of my undergraduate career with high hopes of graduating in December and moving to Sweden shortly following graduation.

Somer Smith

Myers-Brigg Personality Type: ISTJ

Interest: Reading, eating good food, organizing, and watching Netflix.

Favorite Book: Most of the books I read are trilogies or longer and my current favorite is Significance by Shelly Crane.

One Amazing Thing I’ve Seen or Done: Rode a roller coaster (that probably wasn’t safe) through the trees in Jamaica.

Somer Smith is an undergraduate Biology major at Texas A&M University. She is also minoring in Applied Learn-Science, Technology, Engineering, Math, also known as AggieTeach. Before attending Texas A&M, Somer attended a rural high school in Groesbeck, Texas. While there she was very active in extracurricular activities and held many leadership positions. She graduated as Valedictorian of her class and was also able to receive an Associates Degree. Some of her hobbies include: reading, arm knitting, cross-stitch, and spending time with family and friends. Her focus on this project will be primarily based on studying the samples in the lab and doing basic research for the team. She looks forward to all of the experience and knowledge she will gain and contribute.

Helen Chen

Degree: Biomedical Science (Estimated Graduation May 2018)

Myers-Brigg Personality Type: ESTJ

Interests: Kayaking, Hiking, Powerlifting, Game of Thrones, Makeup, and Traveling!

Favorite Book: Ready Player One

One Amazing Thing I’ve Seen or Done:  I climbed the Great Wall of China and it was amazing! The view was stunning and the weather that day perfect.

Helen lived in Phoenix, Arizona for the first 9 years of her life, and then moved to a small town in the southern tip of Texas. She attended a magnet high school focused on the health professions career and started college at Texas A&M University in 2015. Before attending Texas A&M University, she traveled to China to see her relatives and to experience new adventures. In College Station, she’s occupied her time with studying for her degree, volunteering in the local hospital, and being involved with her scholarship organization, Century Scholars. In the Fall of 2016, she started to work as a lab assistant in the Veterinary Pathobiology department focusing on hemoparasites that affect cattle. Outside of the class and lab, she likes to spend time watching movies or cooking different meals and recipes.  If she has a free weekend, she likes to spend it visiting friends in Houston or Austin and food hopping at new restaurants. She likes to start everyday with the mindset of  “better today than yesterday”. Her focus on this project will be on data analysis and laboratory work in salted beef and vitamin D.

Emelie Nelson

Degree(s):Biomedical Sciences (BS) WIP; Certificate of Medical Proficiency in Spanish

Interests: Learning languages, medicine, traveling, painting, and yoga.

Favorite Book: Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë

One Amazing Thing I’ve Seen or Done:  I started a non-profit organization (Love Our Lungs)  to raise money for Cystic Fibrosis.

Emelie Nelson is an Undergraduate Student at Texas A&M University currently pursuing her degree in Biomedical Sciences. Emelie was born and spent the beginning of her childhood in Galveston, TX. At the age of ten, she and her family relocated to Friendswood, TX where she was heavily involved in cheerleading, science fair, and the debate team. Emelie has spent the past two summers interning at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) and volunteering at Shriners Burn Hospital in Galveston, TX. These experiences have reaffirmed her lifelong dream of becoming a Physician. In college, Emelie has participated in a medical mission trip to Peru, been an active member of MEDLIFE, and volunteered for Meals on Wheels. Emelie is incredibly excited to be a member of this research project! Her focus will be on the analysis of the microbial growth of food samples.

John McQuitty

Degree(s): Biomedical Sciences (BS) and Entomology (BS) from Texas A&M University, WIP

Interests: Scuba Diving, Fishing, Mosquito- Transmitted Diseases, Taekwondo, Pottery Making, and Cooking.

Favorite Book: Red Rising by Pierce Brown

One Amazing Thing I’ve Seen or Done:  I swam with a sea turtle that was bigger than me!

John McQuitty is a Biomedical Sciences and Entomology double major at Texas A&M University. He is originally from Galveston, TX where he spent his youth heavily involved in school, Taekwondo, and art. This past summer, he had the opportunity to work alongside Dr. Tracy Kinsky in a research lab at Shriners Burn Hospital in Galveston, TX. This experience inspired him to pursue an MD/PhD program following the completion of his Undergraduate at Texas A&M. In college, John has been an active member of the fraternity Alpha Tau Omega and a volunteer for Meals on Wheels. John greatly looks forward to participating in this project. His focus will primarily be on the microbial and nutritional analysis of collected food samples.

Daniela Trevino

Degree: Texas A&M University, Biomedical Sciences. Estimated graduation: Spring 2018

Myers-Brigg Personality Type: INFP

Interests: Weight Lifting, Sudoku, Music, and Nutrition

Favorite Book: Buddha’s Brain: The Practical Neuroscience of Happiness, Love, and Wisdom by Rick Hanson

One Amazing Thing I’ve Seen or Done: Medical Brigade in Nicaragua

Daniela Trevino is a pre-med undergraduate student at Texas A&M University studying Biomedical Sciences. She was born in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon and lived there until she was 6 years old. Growing up in Monterrey allowed her to learn both English and Spanish since she attended an English speaking school and spoke Spanish at home with her parents and siblings. Daniela moved to the United States just before starting 1st grade and attended Garza Elementary in McAllen, Texas. She continued her education all throughout high school in the valley, until she graduated and moved to College Station to attend Texas A&M University. She started working at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory in 2016 as a technician in their Drug Laboratory. Daniela plans on attending medical school after taking a gap year to focus on research.

Mariana Trevino

Degree(s): Biomedical Sciences (B.A) from Texas A&M University (estimated graduation date: Fall 2018)

Myers-Brigg Personality Type: ISTJ

Interests: Traveling, Olympic Weightlifting, Nutrition, Reading, Chemistry

Favorite Book: The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan

One Amazing Thing I’ve Seen or Done: Watched a live craniotomy

Mariana Trevino is an undergraduate Biomedical Sciences major at Texas A&M University. She was raised in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico until she was 5 years old after which her family moved to Mission, Texas. Growing up she enjoyed playing competitive tennis and later found her love for Olympic weightlifting during her senior year of high school. During her first two years of college Mariana became very interested in nutrition and how the foods that we eat affect our body which ultimately led her to discovering a vegan lifestyle which she has been following ever since. This along with working at the Texas A&M Fruit and Vegetable Improvement Center helped fuel her interest in nutrition even further and she hopes to use the knowledge that she has gained throughout her academic career.

Christian Encarnacion

Biomedical Sciences (B.S) from Texas A&M University, Graduating 2019
Myers-Brigg Personality Type: INTJ
Interests: Traveling, hiking, eating lots of good food, video games, TV shows, movies, and running
Favorite BookAnnihilation by Jeff Vandermeer
One Amazing Thing I’ve Seen or Done: Visited Vatican City and saw Pope Francis during a Papal Audience.

Christian was born in Miami, Florida to two Filipino immigrants. He lived there for ten years before moving to McAllen, Texas. He is currently a pre-med junior at Texas A&M University and is majoring in Biomedical Sciences. He is an active member of Minority Association for Pre-Health Students and is currently Vice President Internal for the Philippine Student Association. He previously volunteered in a lab studying the physiological and psychological effects of alcohol. Back home, he regularly shadows doctors and was part of a student observation program with the surgery department at a local hospital. When not cramming and studying into the late hours of the night, Christian likes to spend time binging on his favorite TV shows, catching the latest movie, or eating food with some friends.

Emily Bandy


Nutrition (B.A.) from Texas A&M University, WIP

Myers-Brigg Personality Test: INTJ

Interests: Running, eating (especially froyo), cooking, hiking, camping, skiing, listening to music

Favorite Book: The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolken

One Amazing Thing I’ve Seen Or Done: Only person to make a smoothie Speedy Noil liked

Emily Bandy was born and raised in San Antonio, TX. After running three and a half years on the cross country/track team in high school, she joined the A&M XC & Track team her freshman year at Texas A&M. While balancing her athletics, she began to work for the Sports Nutrition department for the A&M football team. She later left the team to pursue a bigger role in sports nutrition, leading to traveling to the bowl game in 2016 and to a national sports nutrition conference in 2017. She now works as a tutor for student-athletes and continues to work for the football team. Her focus in this project is to get hands-on experience and learn the basics of research.


These new members are joined by several of our past undergraduate research scholars including Erika Davila, Rogelio Casas, Sarah Bankhead, Melissa Dossett, Monica Montgomery, Karen Galvan, Michael Pawlus, and Roger Howard!

Eight New Shipwrecks Discovered in Greece’s Fourni Archipelago Mon, 31 Jul 2017 16:21:22 +0000  
Left: An archaeologist systematically photographs a wreck site to create a 3D site plan; Right: High resolution 3D model of a Roman period shipwreck

The 2017 season of the Fourni Underwater Survey in Greece fully documented 14 sites located during previous seasons. While the focus of this season was the thorough documentation of sites located during the 2015-2016 seasons, the survey of shipwrecks in the small archipelago led to the discovery of eight new sites, for a total of 53 shipwrecks located over three seasons.

The fieldwork was conducted during three weeks in June by the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities/Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports in cooperation with RPM Nautical Foundation. The research vessel Hercules conducted seafloor mapping using multibeam sonar and inspected deepwater targets with an ROV, while diver teams conducted photogrammetry, drawings, and recovered key artifacts for further study and scientific analysis. The ROV and divers occasionally worked in tandem to record and recover artifacts from sites. Amphoras from each wreck were raised for conservation, archiving, and 3D modeling, and a few were prepared for DNA and residue analysis, as well as testing a new method of direct dating of ancient ceramics.

The eight new sites span the Classical Period through the 19th century A.D. The majority date to the Late Roman period, but the most significant wrecks include a Classical shipwreck carrying amphoras from Chios and a Roman shipwreck transporting Dressel 28 amphoras from Iberia. The project also found a wide range of anchors dating from the Archaic Period through the Byzantine Period. The finds further illuminate maritime connectivity between the entirety of the Mediterranean and reveal trade and technological changes throughout history.

Read more about the Fourni Underwater Survey.

Left: RPM Nautical Foundation’s scientific research vessel RV Hercules at port in Fourni; Right: Photographing large Pontic amphoras that date to the Roman Period

Left: The chief conservator carefully prepares a Classical Period Chian amphora for the conservation tank; Right: Conservators clean marine growth from amphoras

Photos by Vasilis Mentogianis; 3D model by Kotaro Yamafune

We are very grape-ful… Sun, 23 Jul 2017 03:46:08 +0000  

By Erika Davila

Last weekend we went on a mission in the name of science– we took on a great opportunity last minute thanks to Dr. Justin Scheiner in Texas A&M’s Department of Horticulture, and found ourselves harvesting grapes at Mound Prairie Vineyard in Snook, Texas! The owner graciously allowed us to take grapes from two rows that were left over after their harvest which he did not need. Conveniently, we were looking to create our own wine for the project, so obviously it was destined for us!

Harvesting grapes. From left to right: Rogelio Casas, Erika Davila, and Sarah Bankhead

We came across a few friendly, and not so friendly, little critters that call this vineyard home. Unfortunately, a hornet stung the fingers of two of our group members, but hopefully the risk was well worth the reward!

Over the course of several hours we collected about 100 pounds of grapes, which equates to a little over 6 gallons of wine! YAY! To make it as similar as possible to 17th-century wine, we used two common methods of preparation. The first 5 gallons were made using a press, which uses a machine to crush the grapes (in our case a modern bladder press from the Horticulture department), and put in a 5-gallon oak barrel. Another gallon of wine was made by stomping on the grapes, which proved to be a fun workout experience! Both of these methods crush the grapes and release the juice that contains the sugars necessary for the microbes on the grapes to begin fermentation. Now we play the waiting game!


From left to right: Sarah Bankhead, Crystal Dozier, Grace Tsai, Erika Davila, and Rogelio Casas

Thanks again to the grape group of people that helped out!

Check out our winemaking process in this fun video below!

Fun fact of the day: The Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle (Harmonia axyridis), a common grape pest, can sometimes be crushed with the grapes during the wine-making process, and taint the flavor of the wine due to the alkaloids found in their defensive secretions. Read more about them here:

Exciting Collaborations Fri, 21 Jul 2017 04:14:12 +0000 By Michael Pawlus

In an effort to obtain the best possible outcome for our test brew, the team has begun initial talks with Karbach Brewing Company in Houston.

Karbach Brewing, founded in 2011, has a proven track record of brewing success and will be assisting our efforts by brewing a modern variation of the selected recipe and hosting a fundraiser, featuring the tribute beer, at the recently renovated brewery in Houston.   The knowledge possessed by the staff at Karbach as well as the capacity and willingness to assist with such an interesting project will help spread the outcomes of the project and raise awareness of other projects going on as well. Some of the team made the trip from College Station to meet up with Brand Manager David Graham and Brew Master, Eric Warner to tour the facility and lay out a plan for execution.

Karbach Visit. (L to R: Mike, David, Grace, Christopher, Eric, and Justin)

Meanwhile, we have been in touch with Nathan Barkman, the owner of Rio Brazos Distillery, who has been so kind to donate a few casks for both the project and the two exhibits planned in Houston. Rio Brazos Distillery specializes in using locally sourced grains and simple, small-batch, pot-distillation for making premium whiskeys and bourbon. The SBSB team is also considering making some 17th-century distillates with Mr. Barkman to get our hands dirty and explore how aqua vitae was made in the past.


Last but not least, Karyn and Calvin Medders at Chubby Dog Farm will be helping us prepare the salted beef and salted pork for our project.

Chubby Dog Farm specializes in heritage mangalitsa-red wattle pigs on wooded acres and GMO-free feed and no antibiotics or hormones ever. Take a look at their lovely farm here!

Thanks to all of our wonderful collaborators and sponsors without whom this project would not be possible.