Projects – Institute of Nautical Archaeology Institute of Nautical Archaeology Sun, 18 Feb 2018 21:37:49 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Fourni Underwater Survey Sat, 13 May 2017 17:18:53 +0000 The Fourni Underwater Survey is a Greek-American collaborative project in the small Aegean archipelago of Fourni-Korseon. The survey located 22 shipwrecks during the first season in 2015 and 23 shipwrecks in 2016 for a total to 45. With less than half the coastline surveyed by divers and deepwater remote sensing beginning in 2017, every indication suggests many more shipwrecks remain to be discovered.

The project is a collaboration between the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities and RPM Nautical Foundation, directed by George Koutsouflakis and Peter Campbell. Fourni is a collection of 13 islands and islets between the larger islands of Samos and Icaria. The small islands never had significant settlements, instead the archipelago’s importance comes from its role in navigation and as a temporary anchorage. Fourni lies along a major east-west crossing route, as well as the primary north-south route that connected the Black Sea and Aegean to the Levant.

Findings from the survey include shipwrecks spanning the Late Archaic Period (c. 525-480 B.C.) to the Early Modern Period (c. 1750). Amphoras from the shipwrecks reveal robust trade between the Black Sea, Cyprus, the Levant, and Egypt, as well as long distance trade with North Africa, Spain, and Italy. Beside shipwrecks, the project documented a large number of finds such as jettisoned pottery and ancient anchors, such as two Archaic Period stone anchor stocks that are the largest found in the Aegean to date, as well as a submerged settlement dating to Late Antiquity. The finds reveal the importance of eastern Mediterranean trade networks passing by Fourni in every time period, connecting the Black Sea and Aegean to Cyprus, the Levant, and Egypt.

ABOVE: A diver carefully takes an amphora to the surface using a lift bag (Left photo: Vasilis Mentogianis). A diver measures Archaic Period amphoras. (Right Photo: Vasilis Mentogianis).

The Twelve Apostles Research Project Sat, 11 Jun 2016 15:48:59 +0000 During the 16th century, Spain created an empire whose territories spanned Europe, America, and Asia. Ships became vital to maintain communication between different parts of the empire, and to protect them against other European powers. Moreover, the European economy depended on the silver bullion transported by Spanish ships from the New World to Europe through the Indies Run. The most renowned ocean-going vessel employed by the Spanish during this period was the galleon.

Our knowledge of galleons is limited due to the lack of archaeological evidence and inaccuracies in their contemporaneous representations. In addition, even though little is known about this ship type and its design has not been systemically studied, a pejorative reputation exists on the qualities of the 16th-century Spanish galleon. This project attempts to rectify this misconception and bridge the gaps in our current state of knowledge on these vessels. Project director José Luis Casaban aims to accomplish this goal by focusing on a series of newly-designed Spanish galleons built between 1589 and 1591, known as the Twelve Apostles. These ships were built to provide the Spanish Crown with a permanent navy for the coastal defense of the Iberian Peninsula and to escort the fleets of the Indies Run. Their construction became the largest shipbuilding program undertaken in Europe during the 16th century and, as a result, generated abundant documentation that is now dispersed in different Spanish archives, which are among the richest in the world for this period.

Casaban’s examination during 2014 and 2015 of original unpublished documents located in various Spanish archives, along with archaeological and iconographic evidence, is used to investigate the conception, outfitting, and history of these galleons. This research will also contribute to the assessment of functional, technological, material, ideological, economic, and environmental factors in the design and management of these new Spanish ships. The study will include a systematic comparative evaluation of contemporaneous European naval architecture, including that of English and Dutch ships. In addition, a 3-dimensional digital model of these galleons will be produced using historical and technical data based on the results of his archival research. The model will become a powerful tool to understand the naval architecture and shipbuilding philosophy behind the design of these ships. The galleon’s stability, hydrostatics factors, sailing capabilities, and performance will be digitally tested and analyzed under various loading and ordnance configurations revealed in the archival data.

The topics covered in the project, including 16th– and 17th-century European and Atlantic maritime history, nautical archaeology, naval architecture, history of technology, and 3-dimensional digital modelling, will appeal to a wide range of specialists, students, and the general public taking into account the major role played by these vessels in the early European colonization of the New World.

Visit the project’s blog! The Twelve Apostles: Spanish Galleons Research

Selected Bibliography

Casabán, J.L., 2016. The Wreck of the San Bartlomé (1597). The Mariner’s Mirror, Volume 102, Issue 02, pages 206-210.

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Shelburne Shipyard Steamboat Graveyard Research Project Wed, 20 Jan 2016 23:09:22 +0000 The Shelburne Shipyard Steamboat Graveyard Project began in June 2014, under the direction of Dr. Kevin Crisman and Carolyn Kennedy.  The project entails the study of four steamboat hulls that currently lie in Shelburne Shipyard, Lake Champlain, Vermont.  These wrecks are the remains of passenger steamboats once owned by the Champlain Transportation Company (1826- Present). They were sunk intentionally in Shelburne Shipyard after they were deemed unsafe for passenger transport.  The four wrecks, Wrecks 1, 2, 3 and 4, are believed to be the steamers A. Williams (1870), Phoenix II (1820), Burlington (1837), and Whitehall (1838).  The latter three steamboats were built in the period just post-Fulton, when commercial passenger steamboats were a brand new phenomenon.  For this reason, these wrecks are particularly of interest to nautical archaeologists examining the dynamic period of steamboat construction that followed the first steamboats.   The shipwrights that built these early steamers were figuring out the best construction techniques to create larger, faster boats, but still sturdy enough to travel on Lake Champlain.

We can see these changing designs in the three early Shelburne Shipyard hulls reflected in the narrowing sided dimension and increased spacing of the framing timbers, and the progression to additional longitudinal support timbers.  These changes represent the shipwrights’ attempts to increase the speed of the boats by decreasing the weight of the framing timbers, and support the longer vessels with longer and more numerous longitudinal support timbers.

These four wrecks in such close proximity provide archaeologists with a rare chance to examine not only some of the earliest archaeological examples of steamboats, but also the major changes in steamboat hull construction that took place in the 1820s and 1830s.   The location has also proved to be an excellent training ground for underwater archaeologists in training, and has been host to two field schools with both graduate and undergraduate student participation.

Selected Bibliography

Baldwin, Elizabeth. ‘The Reconstruction of the Lake Champlain Sidewheel Steamer Champlain II.’ Master’s Thesis, Department of Anthropology, 1997. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Bellico, Russell P. Sails and Steam in the Mountains: A Maritime and Military History of Lake George and Lake Champlain. Purple Mountain Press: Fleischmanns, NY, 2001.

Chase, Jack. ‘Shelburne Bay Project.’ A Report on the Nautical Archaeology of Lake Champlain: Results of the 1983 field season of the Champlain Maritime Society, R. Montgomery Fischer, ed. Champlain Maritime Society: Burlington, VT,1985.

Crisman, Kevin. “The Western River Steamboat Heroine, 1832-1838, Oklahoma, USA: Construction.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 43:1(2014), pp. 146.

Lewis, W. “The First Generation of Marine Engines in Central Canadian Steamers, 1809-1837.” Northern Mariner 7:2, (1997), 1-30: 16.

Renwick, James. “On the Steamboats of the United States of America.” Chapter VI in The Steam Engine: Its Invention and Progressive Improvement, an Investigation of its Principles, and Its Application to Navigation, Manufacturers, and Railways. Vol 1. Tredgold, Thomas. London, 1838.

Ross, Ogden. The Steamboats of Lake Champlain 1809-1930. Burlington, VT: Vermont Heritage  Press, 1997.

Schwarz, George. ‘The Passenger Steamboat Phoenix: An Archaeological Study of Early Steam  Propulsion in North America.’ Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, 2012. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Stevenson, David. Sketch of Civil Engineering of North America. London, UK: John Weale,

The Mariner’s Museum & Anthony J. Peluso, Jr. Robert Morton, Ed. The Bard Brothers. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997.> Read Less

Read more about the 2016 field season at: SSSG Blog

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ABOVE: Satellite image of four steamboat wrecks in Shelburne Shipyard, 2013 (Photo: Bing 2013).

Easter Island Survey Tue, 15 Dec 2015 18:40:20 +0000 In 2012 Dr. Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Professor of Biblical Archaeology on the faculty of Texas A&M University’s Nautical Archaeology Program, joined Dr. Jo Anne Van Tilburg (the Cotsen Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles) on Easter Island, a UNESCO World Heritage site off the coast of Chile.

Dr. Van Tilburg has been working on the island for the past thirty years, with a particular interest in the study and conservation of moai (monumental stone statues), crafted by ancient Rapa Nui sculptors, and she is in the process of excavating and conserving two moai on the internal slope of the extinct volcano, Rano Raruku. The pair were joined by INA Associate Director Jeff Morris and his wife Sue. With the help of Rapa Nui paddlers, the group carried out a remote-sensing survey in Rano Raraku lake.

The team also explored other elements of maritime culture that might serve as avenues of research on the island and allow INA to delve into the lost world of Rapa Nui seafaring.

Learn more about moai excavation and conservation on Easter Island:

Selected Bibliography

Arana, P. M. (2014). Ancient fishing activities developed in Easter Island. Latin American Journal Of Aquatic Research, 42(4), 673-689. doi:10.3856/vol42-issue4-fulltext-2

Finney, B. (2001). Voyage to Polynesia’s land’s end. Antiquity, 75(287), 172-181.

Van Tilburg, J. A., & Lee, G. (1987). Symbolic stratigraphy: Rock art and the monolithic statues of Easter Island. World Archaeology, 19(2), 133. doi:10.1080/00438243.1987.9980030.> Read Less


ABOVE: Stone Anchor (left, Photo: INA); Three-masted ship graffito on Moai (right, Photo: INA)


Ioppa Maritima Survey Wed, 09 Dec 2015 20:20:54 +0000 In antiquity, Yaffo, located inside modern Tel Aviv, Israel, was one of the most important ports along Israel’s long, shallow, straight, and mainly harbor-less Mediterranean coast. The Jaffa Cultural Heritage Project (JCHP) carries out ongoing excavations on the ancient tel (mound). The 2014 INA/JCHP Ioppa Maritima Project, directed by Dr. Shelley Wachsmann, is a collaborative effort intended to add nautical/maritime dimensions to this work. It consists of two independent foci: A) a remote-operated vehicle (ROV) survey to visually examine a series of anomalies collected during an Israel Geological Survey (IGS) multibeam survey at depths of 50-300 meters off the coast of Yaffo, and B) a geoarchaeological/ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of a geological depression, known locally as ‘the Bassa’ to determine whether it is served as an inland estuary harbor in antiquity as has been suggested repeatedly in the past.  The deep-water portion of the project began on 31 August in the presumed ancient shipping lane paralleling Israel’s Mediterranean coast in the general vicinity of Jaffa. Ronnie Sade, a navigation specialist, supplied the team with 22 potential shipwreck targets based on multibeam sonar data.

During the survey the team located three iron-hulled ships. Target 5 turned out to be a lifeboat from a Russian cargo ship, the Tolya Komar, which sank between 1971 and 1997. The most interesting discovery during the deep-water survey was the last of Sade’s targets, 22, which turned out to be a large early 20th-century warship. The ROV’s sonar picked up what appeared to be a large, 50- to 80-m long, iron vessel sitting upright on the seafloor. Ghostly lifeboat davits faced outboard, indicating that at least some of the light craft had been deployed prior to sinking. The vessel’s bow had been ripped open. The loss of the forward gun mount suggests that the ship capsized or rolled during the sinking process, and then righted herself before reaching the seabed. The team continues to search for the identity of this shipwreck.

Selected Bibliography

Wachsmann, S., D. Inglis, M. Lickliter-Mundon, V. Morriss, & H. Perdue. 2014. “2014 Ioppa Maritima Project: The Deep-Sea Survey.” INAQ 41.4:16-19.

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Photo 1 Ioppa Main Page

Photo 2 Ioppa Main Page

ABOVE: Tolya Komar‘s lifeboat (Photo: INA).    ROV Survey image (Photo: INA).

Ship Biscuit and Salted Beef Research Project Wed, 02 Dec 2015 16:41:14 +0000 “[Unsalted food] is rotten and stinking [so] it is necessary to lose your senses of taste and smell and sight just to [consume] it and not sense it,” wrote Eugenio de Salazar, a Spanish explorer to the New World, in 1573. Before canning technology or refrigeration were invented, the English Parliament enforced strict limitations on provisions to reduce illness and death from food spoilage. Unfortunately, these methods of preservation also decrease the nutritional value of food on lengthy voyages. This project hopes to understand the effects of shipboard diet on the health of sailors by determining the nutritional intake of seamen on 17th-century English ships.

Previous attempts to gauge the nutritional value of shipboard diets were based on historical documentation instead of laboratory data. In this project, shipboard food will be replicated using the exact ingredients and methods of preparation from the 17th century, including non-GMO ingredients, the exact species of plant or animal, and the same butchery methods and cuts of meat. Archaeological and historical data will be used to replicate the salted pork and beef, ship biscuit, wine and beer, and other provisions aboard Warwick, an English race-built galleon that sank in 1619. Then, a trans-Atlantic voyage will be simulated by storing the food in casks and keeping these in a ship’s hull for three months. Every ten days, representative samples of food will be sent for nutritional and microbial analysis. Lastly, this project compares laboratory results to data that has already been derived from human remains on wrecks such as Mary Rose (1545) and Vasa (1628).

The nutritional, microbial, and osteological data gathered from this project will allow for a detailed reconstruction of subsistence on board ships, and offer a glimpse into the unique food situation, health, and daily life of this subset of individuals.  The project is directed by Grace Tsai, a PhD student in the Nautical Archaeology Program and INA’s Membership Coordinator.

Selected Bibliography

Gardiner, Julie. 2005. Before the Mast: life and death aboard the Mary Rose. The Archaeology of the Mary Rose, Volume 4. The Mary Rose Trust, Portsmouth.

Heidenreich, Conrad E. and Nancy L. Heidenreich. 2002. A nutritional analysis of the food rations on Martin Frobisher’s second expedition, 1577. Polar Record 38(204):23-38.

Hornsey, Ian S. 2003. A History of Beer and Brewing. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.

Ives, Vernon A. 1984. The Rich Papers: Letters from Bermuda 1615-1646: eyewitness accounts sent by the early colonists to Sir Nathaniel Rich. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Kilby, Kenneth. 1971. The Cooper and His Trade. John Baker Ltd, London.

Mandelblatt, Bertie. 2007. A Transatlantic Commodity: Irish Salt Beef in the French Atlantic World. History Workshop Journal 63: 18-47.

May, Robert. 1660. The Accomplisht Cook, or the Art and Mystery of Cookery. Original manuscript.

Phillips, Carla Rahn. 1986. Six Galleons for the King of Spain: Imperial Defense in the Early Seventeenth Century. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Rixson, Derrick. 2000. The History of Meat Trading. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham.

Smith, John. 1966. The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.

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ABOVE: Grace Tsai cataloging the faunal assemblage from the 1619 Warwick shipwreck (Left Photo: NMB, 2015). José Luis Casabán photographing a long bone fragment (Right Photo: NMB).

Dashur Boat Ships Survey Fri, 30 Oct 2015 16:10:25 +0000 In cooperation with the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Expedition to Lisht and Dahshur, directed by Dr. Dieter Arnold, INA Research Associate Pearce Paul Creasman has conducted several seasons of geophysical survey at the pyramid complex of Senwosret III at Dahshur, Egypt. The survey seeks to determine the suitability of ground penetrating radar, magnetometry and electromagnetic induction for mapping the area where five ancient boat-burials from the Twelfth Dynasty were found in the 1890s. At least one boat reported at the time of excavation remains unaccounted for. Tests conducted in 2007 demonstrated that magnetometry does detect subsurface structures of stone, fired brick, and unfired brick under current site conditions. Data indicated areas of geological activity as well as unexcavated archaeological remains, though no definitive traces of boat burials. To refine the search, a second survey in 2008 employed ground penetrating radar. Results from 2008 are pending, however; a report on the 2007 season will soon appear in The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, journal of the Nautical Archaeology Society.
In addition to the support of INA, this work would not have been possible without: the National Geographic Society; Dr. Dieter Arnold, Dr. Adela Oppenheim and the Metropolitan Museum of Art; Dr. Zahi Hawass, Supreme Council of Antiquities (Egypt); Dr. Mark Everett, Department of Geology and Geophysics at Texas A&M University; American Research Center in Egypt; Institute of Maritime Research and Discovery.

Selected Bibliography

Creasman, P.P., Vining, B., Koepnick, S. and N. Doyle. 2008. An Exploratory Geophysical Survey at the Pyramid Complex of Senwosret III at Dahshur, Egypt, in Search of Boats. IJNA, in press (1 December 2008).

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Yassıada Roman Shipwreck Excavation Fri, 30 Oct 2015 15:37:22 +0000 Yassıada, an island off the Turkish coast, is small but has a reef that extends 200 meters southwest from its southwest corner which is especially treacherous, for it rises to within two to three meters of the surface about 125 meters off shore. An unknown number of ships have run onto this reef and sunk.

Lying at a depth of 36 to 42 meters, about 100 meters south of Yassıada , is a Late Roman wreck of the late fourth or early fifth century. It was partially excavated under the auspices of the University Museum in 1967 and 1969; a later excavation campaign, in 1974 under the auspices of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, was halted by the outbreak of hostilities on Cyprus. The ship was 19 meters long, with a length-to-beam ratio of 3:1. Its hull, mostly of cypress, but with a keel of white oak, was built in the shell-first Greco-Roman manner. Its pegged mortise-and-tenon joints were weaker and farther apart than those of earlier vessels, however, although not so widely spaced as the unpegged joints of the later seventh-century ship. These factors, and evidence for the early erection of half frames amidships to help the shipwright shape the hull, provide further proof of a slow evolution toward modern, frame-first construction. We did not find the anchors for the ship, which carried around 1,100 amphoras in its hold. The stern yielded Late Roman plates, a dish, a bowl, pitchers, a cup, cooking pots, two large storage vessels, and four terra-cotta lamps. The shapes of the lamps, one with the initials of a known Athenian lamp maker who flourished at the time, provided the approximate date for the ship’s sinking. Excavation deeper on the sloping seabed would surely reveal other artifacts that tumbled down slope as the ship disintegrated.

Selected Bibliography

Bass, George F. “New Tools for Undersea Archaeology.” National Geographic 134.3 (September 1968): 402 – 423

Bass, George F. Archaeology Beneath the Sea. pp.61-205, New York, 1975.

Bass, George F., and Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr. “A Fourth-Century Shipwreck at Yassi Ada.” American Journal of Archaeology 75 (1971 ): 27-37.

van Doorninck, Frederick H., Jr. “The 4th Century Wreck at Yassi Ada: An Interim Report on the Hull.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 5 ( 1976) : 115- 131.

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YA 4th Content Image

ABOVE: Archaeologist photographing the exposed hull (Photo: INA, Slide #YA4-471).

Şeytan Deresi Shipwreck Survey Wed, 23 Sep 2015 18:34:19 +0000 The Institute’s second excavation of 1975 was conducted near Şeytan Deresi (Devil’s Creek), on the north coast of Turkey’s Kerme Bay. AINA (now INA) had surveyed the wreck  in 1973 and raised two huge pottery vessels, along with a number of pot sherds. The site seemed untouched since then.The jars had been found at the base of a sloping field of rock outcrops and boulders.  No traces of wood had been found, to obvious disappointment, nor were there any non-ceramic objects other than a fishing weight, which was not necessarily antique.This led  to the belief the ancient ship capsized, for the sand was deep enough to have preserved traces of wood had there been any below the cargo. No effort was spared to locate hull remains and other concentrations of pottery.

The date of the loss of the cargo is circa 1600 B.C. based on parallels to ceramics from other sites such as Beyçesultan, Troy, and Minoan sites in Crete.The shape of the two-handled pithoi from Şeytan Deresi resembles a middle Minoan spouted shape that continues, less similarly, into the late Minoan I period. The evidence points to a date in the late Middle Bronze or early Late Bronze Age.The craft that carried this cargo need not have been large, and may have been no more than a coaster transporting newly finished jars from one village to another. This would explain why no cooking implements, lamps, and other ships wares were found.

Selected Bibliography

Bass, George F., “Devil Creek,” AINA Newsletter 2.3, 1975. Reprint available

Bass, George F., “Sheytan Deresi: preliminary report,” IJNA 5.4 (1976) 293-303. Reprint available.

Bass, George F., The Wreck at Sheytan Deresi.” Oceans 10.1 (1977) 34-39.

Bass, G. F., “Excavation of a Pre-Classical Shipwreck (Sheytan Deresi wreck),” National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1975 Projects (1984). Reprint available.

Margariti, Roxani,  “The Şeytan Deresi Wreck,” in J. P. Delgado ed., Encyclopedia of Underwater and Maritime Archaeology (New Haven and London, 1997).

Margariti, Roxani, The Şeytan Deresi Wreck and the Minoan Connection in the Eastern Aegean.  Master’s Thesis, Texas A&M University, 1998.

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ABOVE: George and Ann Bass working with shipwreck ceramics (Photo: INA, SD 161)


Santo Antonio de Tanna Shipwreck Excavation Wed, 23 Sep 2015 16:23:08 +0000 At the time of the sinking of the frigate the Santo Antonio de Tanna in 1697, the Portuguese were struggling to maintain control of their few remaining settlements in the Indian Ocean, and the vital sea routes linking them with each other and with Portugal. Whilst the British and Dutch were successfully encroaching on the Portuguese trading monopoly, the Omani Arabs were rebelling against a century of Portuguese exploitation and oppression. In 1696 this rebellion came to a head when an Arab force sailed into the southern harbor at Mombasa and laid siege to Fort Jesus, an important Portuguese stronghold.

As news of the siege filtered through to the Portuguese administration in Goa late in 1696, a fleet consisting of two frigates and two galliots was sent to the relief of Fort Jesus. The subsequent loss of the Santo Antonio de Tanna and the final fall of Fort Jesus in 1698 presented a serious blow to the already strained circumstances of the Portuguese. Two contemporary reports were written about these events.

The excavation of the Santo Antonio de Tanna was carried out between 1977 and 1979 under the auspices of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and the National Museums of Kenya. Diving operations were carried out from a barge moored over the wrecksite. Personnel for the excavation operations came from all over the world, and thousands of hours were spent underwater during the three seasons of the excavation. Moreover, two study seasons were spent in Mombasa for the purpose of cataloguing, and continuing conservation of the artifacts.

A study of the ordenance has shown that this was lighter and more limited than one would have expected for a vessel of her size and purpose. Many other insights into the condition of the 17th century Portuguese empire have been derived from this excavation.

Selected Bibliography


Kirkman, James, 1972, A Portuguese Wreck off Mombasa. IJNA 1: 153-57

Piercy, R.C.M., 1976, The Mombasa Shipwreck. AINA Newsletter, 3.3

Piercy, R.C.M., 1977, Mombasa wreck excavation, Preliminary report, 1977. IJNA 6: 331-347.

Piercy, R.C.M., 1978, Mombasa wreck excavation, Second preliminary report, 1978. IJNA 7: 301-319.

Piercy, R.C.M., 1978, The 1978 season at Mombasa. AINA Newsletter, 5.4

Piercy, R.C.M., 1979, Mombasa wreck excavation, Third preliminary report, 1979. IJNA 4: 303-309.

Piercy, R.C.M., 1981, Mombasa wreck excavation, Fourth preliminary report, 1980. IJNA 10: 109-118.

Piercy, R.C.M., 1982, Excavation of a shipwreck in Mombasa Harbor, Kenya. National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1976 Projects: 17-30.

Piercy, R.C.M., 1983, The Mombasa Wreck Excavation in “Museums and the

Piercy, R.C.M.; Darroch, A.C.; Bass, G.F., 1992, The Wreck of the Santo Antonio de Tanna. Archaeology

Sassoon, H., 1977, Mombasa Wreck Excavation – Newsletter (Mombasa)

Sassoon, H., 1978, Mombasa Wreck Excavation, Second Interim Report (Mombasa)

Sassoon, H., 1979, Mombasa Wreck Excavation, Third Interim Report (Mombasa)

Sassoon, H., 1980, Mombasa Wreck Excavation, Fourth Interim Report (Mombasa)

Sassoon, H., 1981, Ceramics from the Wreck of a Portuguese Ship at Mombasa. Azania 16: 98-130. 1991,

The Mombasa Wreck Excavation. INA Newsletter, 18.2 (This whole edition of the newsletter is devoted to the MWE.)

Underwater Heritage” Museum (Quarterly Review published by UNESCO) 137:27-29

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ABOVE: Diver labelling timbers during the excavation (Photo: INA, Slide #MO Hull)